ABSTRACT: Within the early Eighties, missionary and researcher David Barrett revealed the World Christian Encyclopedia, a large survey of worldwide Christianity and missions. Since then, the work of Barrett and others has formed the church’s method to missions in profound methods, not least by focusing consideration on the world’s remaining unreached peoples. Now, new generations of researchers are tracing the gospel’s unfold by the International South and past, displaying that at this time’s church is extra numerous than many have imagined — and serving to at this time’s Christians take part extra strategically within the gospel’s advance.
For our ongoing collection of characteristic articles for pastors and Christian leaders, we requested F. Lionell Younger III, Senior Analysis Affiliate on the Cambridge Centre for Christianity Worldwide, to explain how new insights and initiatives are shaping the church’s mission.
Evangelicals are severe about missions. To crib a quote from the American historian Douglas Sweeney, “Evangelicals care about nothing greater than evangelizing the world.”1 Sweeney could also be talking in hyperbole, however not by a lot. We’re captivated with doing and well-known for our activism. That is an evangelical energy. What evangelicals, as a bunch, haven’t all the time taken critically is the lifetime of the thoughts. As Mark Noll wrote in his epistle of a wounded lover, “The scandal of the evangelical thoughts is that there’s not a lot of an evangelical thoughts.”2 We have now not been as captivated with pondering and will not be as well-known for our erudition. This has been an evangelical weak point.3
American evangelical missions through the twentieth century typically failed to mix zeal with information.4 In a latest lecture on the historical past of missiology, Brian Stanley noticed that “there may be all the time an inclination, significantly in Christian missions, for the sphere to divide between the doers and the thinkers.” He rightly referred to the issue as a “deadly separation,” and one which may be extra pronounced in missions than in some other space of Christian ministry. Stanley, a extremely revered mental, can be an evangelical who could be very a lot for missionary exercise. As he put it in the identical tackle, “The problem is to allow practitioners to be much less afraid of deep analysis and reflection, however to conversely problem the thinkers with the persevering with crucial of what the church is definitely known as to do.”5
There have been instances in our latest previous when the thinkers and the doers really did get collectively. This essay introduces readers to the work of David Barrett and a outstanding story of success that has caused important adjustments in the way in which evangelicals perform the Nice Fee. A dialogue about Christianity within the International South will comply with, interacting with Philip Jenkins’s latest feedback about what he calls “the top of the International South.” What does he imply — and what are the potential implications for the church and its mission?
‘Miracle from Nairobi’
In 1982, Oxford College Press revealed the 1,010-page World Christian Encyclopedia (WCE).6 It was edited by David Barrett (1927–2011), who served as a missionary with the Church Missionary Society from 1957 to 1985. Barrett was a British evangelical who had ready for the Anglican priesthood at Ridley Corridor, Cambridge. He was mentored by Stephen C. Neill (1900–1984), a missionary to India who later turned a tutorial on the College of Cambridge.7 After ending his research at Cambridge (BA, MA), Barrett served as a missionary in Kenya (then British Kenya) earlier than persevering with his research at Union Theological Seminary (STM) and Columbia College (PhD). Barrett the missionary, like his mentor, turned Barrett the tutorial.
After ending his doctorate at Columbia, the place he did his work on African Impartial Church buildings, Barrett returned to East Africa for an bold analysis mission. Utilizing Nairobi as his base, between 1968 and 1981 Barrett traveled to almost “each nation on the planet” (he listed 212 international locations) to reap statistics on Christianity and missionary exercise all through the world. He labored with a crew of 21 editors and greater than 5 hundred consultants, one in all whom was Patrick Johnstone, the missionary-researcher and writer of Operation World.8 The mission was slated to take three years however was prolonged to 12, as a result of Barrett and the whole editorial crew “had critically underestimated the dimensions and complexity of the Christian world.”9 Barrett’s large survey confirmed that the overwhelming majority of Christians lived within the “so-called Third World,” and that there have been “Christian church buildings in each inhabited nation on earth.”10 Time journal hailed his work the “Miracle from Nairobi!”11
As a well-trained tutorial, Barrett used a extensively accepted conceptual framework from the examine of financial geography. His knowledge was organized round what remains to be often called the Brandt Line, which divided the globe between the economically developed areas of the world within the International North and people categorised as economically underdeveloped within the International South. The time period Third World was then a shorthand reference to these nations with the least-developed economies, although within the Eighties this time period was progressively changed with the extra congenial-sounding International South. The latter was a reference to most (not all) of the international locations of Africa, Asia, Latin America (together with the Caribbean), and Oceania. The time period International North was used for the bloc of countries with developed economies which can be concentrated in North America and Europe. This nomenclature remains to be extensively used within the self-discipline of worldwide research and informs essential choices made by governments, NGOs, and intergovernmental businesses (such because the United Nations and the World Financial institution). The taxonomy nonetheless holds, although in recent times, with the fast development of some growing economies, the traces have begun to blur.12
Seeing the Unreached
One of many extra fascinating purposes of Barrett’s work was associated to how evangelicals made choices about the place to assign missionaries. His knowledge on missionary allocation confirmed that the Western church was persevering with to ship practically all of its missionaries to elements of the world the place Christianity had already taken root. A basic case is Kenya, the place Barrett had lived for the reason that Fifties, and had returned repeatedly for analysis. In 1900, Christians made up lower than 1 p.c of the inhabitants of what was then British East Africa, although by the yr 2000 the proportion had elevated to an estimated 77 p.c.13 Though Kenya had been largely Christianized, it remained (and stays) a well-liked vacation spot for the allocation of evangelical missionary personnel. Many elements of Africa and most of Central and South America additionally fell into this class. Western mission businesses, Barrett’s analysis confirmed, have been persevering with to ship folks to locations the place foundations had already been laid, even to international locations within the International South that have been overwhelmingly Christian. Many church buildings appeared to carry the belief that efficient missionary technique merely meant buying a passport and sending folks anyplace they “felt led” to go outdoors of america. This assumption wanted to be utterly reassessed.
Barrett’s work inspired evangelicals to assume about what they have been doing. Quickly after Oxford revealed Barrett’s miracle from Nairobi, the Overseas Mission Board (FMB) of the Southern Baptist Conference (SBC) employed Barrett to work as a advisor. The FMB (now the Worldwide Mission Board) was one of many largest and most influential mission businesses on the planet. Utilizing Barrett’s analysis, the FMB decided that there wanted to be a higher deal with what is usually known as “unreached folks teams.” Donald McGavran (1897–1990), a WCE advisor, and Ralph Winter (1924–2009), an early advisor, had already begun popularizing the language of “unreached” or “unengaged” folks teams within the Nineteen Seventies, although Barrett’s analysis was instrumental in its utilization.14 The FMB arrange a assume tank known as the International Technique Group to reappraise its allocation of missionary personnel. The SBC was so persuaded by the necessity to act on this analysis that, in an unprecedented show of interagency cooperation, it invited 36 different missions organizations to offer severe consideration to Barrett’s proposals.15 The adjustments caused by Barrett’s analysis over the following few many years have been known as “seismic and enduring.”16 When Barrett died in 2011, the worldwide strategist for the SBC wrote, “When David Barrett got here to the Overseas Mission Board as a advisor in 1985, lower than 3 p.c of our mission drive was deployed to [unreached, unengaged souls]. At this time, because of Barrett’s prophetic push, greater than 80 p.c of the folks teams our missionaries serve amongst are unreached.”17
“The willingness of evangelicals to consider what they have been doing has led to higher evangelical faithfulness.”
John Piper made a good wider viewers conscious of Barrett’s work in his e book Let the Nations Be Glad! The Supremacy of God in Missions, first revealed thirty years in the past. Piper cited David Barrett, Patrick Johnstone, and Ralph Winter all through, taking evangelicals to activity for what Winter had known as “folks blindness.” His plea mixed rigorous exegetical work with spectacular missiological reflection. He corrected misunderstandings of the English phrase nation and urged evangelicals to put higher emphasis on declaring the marvelous works of God amongst all ethnic teams.18 Piper’s energetic and realized contribution to missiology, which has offered greater than 300,000 copies since its first printing, has most likely influenced evangelical pondering on missions greater than any single work that has been revealed over the past thirty years.19 The willingness of evangelicals to consider what they have been doing has led to higher evangelical faithfulness to the missio Dei.
Finish of the ‘International South’?
I just lately had a dialog with Philip Jenkins about his suggestion that we’d now be coming into a brand new period, one which he calls “the top of the International South and, consequently, of worldwide/world Christianity.”20 Jenkins’s 2002 e book The Subsequent Christendom: The Coming of International Christianity helped focus the eye of literate laypersons and realized lecturers on the fast development of Christianity in Africa, Asia, and Latin America. As he put it then, “The period of Western Christianity has handed inside our lifetimes, and the day of Southern Christianity is dawning.”21 Jenkins helped popularize what Barrett and others had been engaged on for the reason that late Nineteen Sixties. In gentle of Jenkins’s utilization of the expression International-South Christianity and his insightful work on the “coming of worldwide Christianity,” it’s cheap to ask what he means by these feedback. Is International-South Christianity now not a useful class? Has world/world Christianity already come and gone?
Wanting again now over the past twenty years, Jenkins has noticed that there was “actual progress within the fashionable consciousness of worldwide affairs amongst Christians.” He notes that “in recent times, the scenario has modified totally. Publishers have turned out numerous volumes in world or world Christianity, a subject that’s now very effectively lined in seminaries and non secular departments.”22 The outstanding literary achievements of lecturers like Andrew Partitions, Lamin Sanneh, Dana Robert, Brian Stanley, Kirsteen Kim, Kwame Bediako, Jehu Hanciles, Mercy Oduyoye, Todd Johnson, Dyron Daughrity, Scott Sunquist, Paul Hiebert, Gina Zurlo, and Wilbert Shenk (to say just a few names!) are actually enlarging the story of Christianity.23 A youthful era of lecturers can be standing on the shoulders of giants and writing contemporary histories of Christianity with sweeping protection of practically each nation on the planet. The sphere of worldwide/world Christianity now includes historians, theologians, sociologists, anthropologists, linguists, and missiologists, lots of them clustered across the Yale-Edinburgh Convention, co-founded in 1992 by Andrew Partitions (1928–2021) and Lamin Sanneh (1942–2019).24 These students have an interest within the broader theme of worldwide/world Christianity, however people additionally concentrate on explicit areas (e.g., continents, subcontinents) and international locations, and likewise deal with topics like transnational actions (e.g., evangelicalism, Anglicanism, Pentecostalism) in addition to particular matters (e.g., women and men, politics, migration, mission).
Beneficiant samples of their scholarship are present in print and on-line tutorial journals revealed by main analysis universities in locations like Boston, Cambridge, Edinburgh, and Princeton. Prolonged bibliographic entries could be accessed in works just like the Edinburgh Companions to International Christianity, the World Christian Encyclopedia (bibliographies are listed underneath each nation) and the brand new nine-volume Cambridge Historical past of Christianity. There may be now voluminous protection of Christianity in each historic interval, overlaying practically each single nation of the world. Gina Zurlo’s latest work International Christianity: A Information to the World’s Largest Faith from Afghanistan to Zimbabwe is an effort to make a few of this scholarly work extra accessible for a common readership.25 Lots of of extremely motivated lecturers, a stunning variety of whom are evangelicals, are shedding new gentle on the church’s story.
International from the Starting
This huge output of analysis on the historical past of Christianity from the primary century to the current is now displaying that the church is extra numerous than we have now ever imagined. When the Spirit of God got here blowing in at Pentecost, the gospel was translated into the languages of Africa, Arabia, Asia, and Europe, spilling out from Jerusalem to the ends of the earth. Someday round AD 60, the apostle Paul might already say that the gospel is “bearing fruit and rising” all through “the entire world” (Colossians 1:6). Christianity has been a worldwide, polycentric motion from its inception, and opposite to fashionable misconceptions, Rome has by no means been the only seat of ecclesiastical authority. In reality, Christianity was adopted because the official faith of Armenia and Georgia in Asia and Aksum (Ethiopia) in Africa earlier than it turned the state faith of Rome within the West. Within the historic church (ca. 100–450), networks of church buildings have been clustered round locations like Jerusalem, Antioch, and Constantinople in Asia; Alexandria in Africa; and Rome within the West, with a number of facilities of affect all confessing a near-identical creed. For a quick interval within the early Center Ages, these 5 areas shaped a pentarchy (5 coequal spheres), however even previous to the utilization of this time period within the sixth century, new facilities had already shaped additional afield in Asia so far as India and China, throughout Africa as far south as Sudan, and to the farthest reaches of Western and Northern Europe. The work of historians helps us see greater than ever earlier than that Christianity has been a various, world faith for 2 thousand years.
“Christianity has been a worldwide, polycentric motion from its inception.”
In our personal day, the rising ethnic and geographic range of Christianity is pushing thinkers like Jenkins to problem how we use expressions just like the International South and world/world Christianity. Jenkins believes that the classifications International South and International North are useful methods of getting conversations about macrolevel tendencies, however that they fail to do justice as descriptors of Christianity’s boundless range. With a lot scholarly gentle having now been forged on Christianity in each nation of the world, he needs to watch out about utilizing the time period International South as if it have been a non secular monolith. He needs to keep away from language that merely divides the church into halves. To be honest to my colleagues working in spiritual demography, they aren’t utilizing the phrases on this means, and Jenkins himself nonetheless makes use of International-South Christianity in his writing. Extra controversially, the boundless range of Christianity has even led just a few lecturers to undertake the expression “world Christianities” (plural) moderately than world/world Christianity (singular), although this language is now being convincingly contested.26
A number of examples will suffice as an instance what Jenkins is speaking about. Christianity has grown quickly in Kenya, in addition to in neighboring South Sudan, but the church in each international locations has been formed by completely different narratives and disparate political and social realties. Nigeria is roughly divided between Christianity and Islam, creating distinctive situations and challenges for the church inside completely different areas of the identical nation. Christianity is rising in Northeast India in addition to within the neighboring hermit-kingdom of Bhutan, however in decidedly alternative ways, due partially to starkly completely different political and social contexts. Historians nonetheless write about Korean Christianity, although the church buildings of North Korea and South Korea are undeniably residing out their religion in numerous political contexts. Christianity throughout Central America has widespread options, however you may see and really feel the variations between the church buildings of Guatemala and neighboring Honduras — and each international locations are distinct from Costa Rica, with its massive expat group. Brazil supplies one of the crucial attention-grabbing examples of Christian range, with evangelicals and Pentecostals now subtle in practically each custom, together with Roman Catholicism, in a means that has now influenced nationwide elections. These are however just a few examples of distinction, and we haven’t even begun speaking in regards to the huge continental variations. As Jenkins has put it, “In demographic and cultural phrases, the world is something however flat.”27 Mentioned one other means, the International South just isn’t a rustic.
Drama of Unfolding Redemption
Students will proceed their work (and their debates), however what’s essential to notice right here is that the tutorial examine of Christianity’s previous and current has been a supply of super knowledge for evangelical engagement in world missions. This could encourage Christians who’ve been suspicious of the lifetime of the thoughts to not be afraid of cautious reflection. The elevated consciousness in our personal day of Christianity’s boundless range additionally has implications for missions — a subject that wants additional exploration. One implication is evident: the chance has by no means been higher for the entire church to take the entire gospel to the entire world. What is required is a shift in missional pondering, one which abandons an America-first mentality, and one which adopts a gospel-first mindset. To repackage a Pauline trope, the gospel didn’t originate with us, and we aren’t the one ones it has reached. The way in which of the long run is in working collectively throughout cultures in cross-cultural missions for the glory of God.
“The chance has by no means been higher for the entire church to take the entire gospel to the entire world.”
What we’re witnessing at this time by the work of globe-trotting researchers and travel-worn lecturers is the wonderful drama of God’s unfolding worldwide redemption. The Spirit is blowing the place he pleases, the kingdoms of the world are persevering with to enter the dominion of the Lord from the east and the west, the north and the south, and the nations are singing the praises of God. These tales are actually being churned out by main tutorial presses as students have turned their consideration to understanding the “stunning work of God” around the globe. Christian lecturers have eyes to see the overarching work of redemptive historical past of their scholarship, at the same time as they delight within the rising range of the church “that nobody [can] quantity, from each nation, from all tribes and peoples and languages” (Revelation 7:9). New analysis helps us reimagine the Christian world and widening our gaze to apprehend extra absolutely the glory of God, world with out finish. Amen.28